Queen Elizabeth succeeds Queen Mary.
Jean Ribault establishes Huguenot colony (Charles
Fort) at Port Royal in South Carolina.
John Hawkins makes his first voyage to the West
Charles Fort abandoned.
Second colony of Huguenots under Rene de Laudonniere
established on St. John's River in Florida.
John Hawkins makes his second voyage to the West Indies and
St. Augustine established.
John Hawkins departs on third voyage.
Hawkins fights Spanish at Battle of Vera Cruz, later
set ashore at Tampico, Mexico, where three of his men
began a 12 month march to the north, reaching Cape
Martin Frobisher's first voyage.
Martin Frobisher's second voyage.
Martin Frobisher's third voyage.
England and Netherlands sign treaty to fight Spain.
Humphrey Gilbert sailed for America with 350 men but
was forced to return.
Sir Francis Drake returns to England from voyage
around the world.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert's voyage to Newfoundland; his
ship was lost on the return voyage.
Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe reach Roanoke Island
in July, returned to England in September.
Raleigh's fleet of seven vessels under Richard
Grenville and Ralph Lane, with 108 men, reach Roanoke
Island in June.
In June, Sir Francis Drake arrives from Florida and
removes the Lane colony to England.
Sir Richard Grenville and three ships arrive at
Roanoke in August.
John White with 150 men, women, and children sent by
Sir Walter Raleigh to plant the Cittie of Raleigh on the
Chesapeake Bay, landed at Hatorask on July
John White returns to Roanoke Island.
Capt. Christopher Newport sailed for the West
Capts. Amias Preston and George Somers sail to the
Sir Walter Raleigh sent Samuel Mace of Weymouth on a
voyage to Virginia (North Carolina) to gather plant
materials and to search for survivors of the Lost
Capt. Bartholomew Gosnold, Capt. Bartholomew Gilbert,
Capt. Gabriel Archer, and others sent on voyage to New
Nova Scotia visited regularly by English
Capt. Martin Pring sent to New England coast by
Capt. Bartholomew Gilbert sent on voyage to Chesapeake
Bay; Gilbert and 4 others went ashore (likely the Eastern
Shore) and were killed by Indians.
James VI of Scotland becomes James I.
Fleet leaves London on December 20.
Ships arrived at Cape Comfort with the original
of settlers; a vanguard boat stopped at
Kecoughtan where the natives welcomed the
"The thirteenth day, we came to our seating place
in Paspihas Countrey, some eight miles from the point of
Land, which I made mention before: where our shippes doe
lie so neere the shoare that they are moored to the Trees
in six fathom water."
George Percy (Tyler
"The fourteenth day, we landed all our men, which
were set to worke about the fortification, and others
some to watch and ward as it was convenient."
George Percy (Tyler 1952:15)
"the Councell contrive the Fort..." "The Presidents
overweening jealousie would admit no exercise at armes,
or fortification but the boughs of trees cast together in
the forme of a halfe moon by the extraordinary paines and
diligence of Captain Kendall."
Proceedings (Barbour 1964:206)
Newport, Smith, Percy, Archer, and others spent 6
days exploring the James River up to the falls and
"Hereupon the President was contented the Fort
should be pallisadoed, the ordinance mounted, his men
armed and exercised, for many were the assaults and
Ambuscadoes of the Salvages...."
Proceedings (Barbour 1964)
200 armed Indians attack Jamestown, killing 1
and wounding 11.
"we laboured, pallozadoing our fort."
"by breake of Day. 3. Of them had most
adventurously stollen under our Bullwark and hidden
themselves in the long grasse...."
John Smith released from arrest and sworn in as member of
"The fifteenth of June we had built and finished
our Fort, which was triangle wise, having three
Bulwarkes, at every corner, like a halfe Moone, and foure
or five pieces of Artillerie mounted in them. We had
made our selves sufficiently strong for these Savages. We
had also sowne most of our Corne on two
George Percy (Tyler 1952:19)
Newport sails for England.
"... our extreme toile in bearing and planting
John Smith, Proceedings (Barbour
President Wingfield deposed, Ratcliffe elected.
Smith captured by Opechancanough.
Newport returns with the First
and about 100 new settlers, finds only 38
Powhatan releases Smith.
Fire destroyed "all the houses in the fort."
"repairing our Pallizadoes."
Newport sails for England.
"Jamestowne being burnt, we rebuilt it and three
forts more ... invironed with a palizado of fourteen or
fifteene feet, and each as much as three or four men
could carrie ... we had three Bulwarkes, foure and twenty
peeces of ordnance of Culvering, Demiculvering, sacar and
falcon and most well mounted upon convenient platforms...."
John Smith, General History (Barbour 1964:325)
Smith elected President.
"Now the building of Ratliffes Pallace stayed as
a thing needlesse; the Church was repaired; the
Store-house recovered; buildings prepared for the
Supplyes, we expected; the Fort reduced to a five-square
forme; the order of the Watch renewed; the squadrons
(each setting of the Watch) trained; the whole Company
every Saturday exercised, in the plaine by the west
Bulwarke, prepared for that purpose, we called
Smithfield: . . ."
(Third Book, Barbour II 180-181)
Newport arrives with the Second
including the first two women and 8 Dutchmen or Poles
who were "glasse-men." No more supplies from England
until May of 1610.
End of Year
Newport returns to England carrying with him "tryals of
Pitch, Tarre, Glasse, Frankincense, Sope Ashes. . . ."
"Now we so quietly followed our businesse, that
in 3 monthes we made 3 or 4 last of pitch and tarre, and
sope ashes, and produced a triall of glasse, made a well
in the forte of excellent sweete water (which till then
was wanting) built some 20 houses, recovered our Church,
..., builte a blocke house in the necke of our Ile, kept
by a garrison, to entertaine the Salvages trade, and none
to passe or repasse ..., 30 or 40 acres of ground we
digged, and planted; ... but the hogges were transposted
to Hog Ile, where also we built a blocke house with a
garrison, to give us notice of any shipping, ..." "We
built also a fort for a retreat. . . ."
Barbour I 263)
Virginia Company replaces Council with Governor who has
Seven ships arrive at Jamestown, Sea Venture wrecked on
Bermuda. 200-300 men, women, and children.
Capt. George Percy replaces Capt. John Smith as president
of the Council, Smith returned to England.
"James towne being burnt, wee rebuilt it and
three Forts more, besides the Church and Store-house, we
had about fortie or fiftie severall houses to keepe us
warme and dry, invironed with a palizado of foureteene or
fifteene foot, and each as much as three or foure men
could carrie. We digged a faire Well of fresh water in
the Fort, where wee had three Bulwarks, four and twentie
peeces of Ordnance, of Culvering, Demiculvering, Sacar,
and Falcon, and most well mounted upon convenient
plat-formes, planted one hundred acres of Corne."
John Smith, (Fourth Book, Barbour II 325).
Gates (acting as Virginia's first governor until arrival
of Thomas West-Lord De La Warr), John Rolfe, Ralph Hamor,
Sir George Somers, and other survivors of the Sea Venture
wrecked at Bermuda arrive at Jamestown. Find 60 survivors
of the "Starving Time."
"Viewing the fort, we found the palisades torn
down, the ports open, the gates from off the hinges, and
the empty houses (which owners had taken from them) rent
up and burnt, rather than the dwellers would step into
the woods a stone's cast off from them to fetch other
firewood. And it is true, the Indians killed as fast
without, if our men stirred but beyond the bounds of
their blockhouse, . . . "
William Strachey (Wright 1964:64)
Gates issues The Divine, Moral, and Martial Laws.
Gates decides to abandon Jamestown.
"This consultation taking effect, our governor,
having caused to be carried aboard all the arms and all
the best things in the store which might to the
adventurers make some commodity upon sale thereof at
home, and burying our ordnances before the fort gate
which looked into the river, . . ."
Gates's convoy meets Lord De La Warr's ships at Mulberry
" ... relanded all his men at the fort
William Strachey (Wright 1964:77)
"Upon His Lordship's landing at the south gate
of the palisade (which looks into the river), our
governor caused his company in arms to stand in order and
make a guard. ... and after marched up into the town,
where at the gate I bowed with the colors and let them
fall at His Lordship's feet, who passed on into the
chapel. . . . "
William Strachey (Wright 1964:84)
"...Is cast almost into the forme of a Triangle,
and Pallizadoed. The south side next to the river
(howbeit extended in a line, or Curtaine sixscore foote
more in length, then the other two, by reason the
advantage of the ground doth so require) containes 140
yards: the West and East sides 100 only. At every Angle
or corner, where the lines meete, a Bulwarke or
Watchtower is raised, and in each Bulwarke a peece of
Ordance or two well mounted. To every side, a
proportionate distance from the Pallisade, is a settled
streete of houses, that runs along, so each line of the
angle hath his streete. In the midst is a marhet place, a
storehouse, and a corps de guarde, as likewise a pretty
chapel, though (at this time when we came in) as ruined
and unfrequented. But the lord governor and captain
general hath given order for the repairing of it, and
at this instant many hands are about it. It is in length
threescore foot, in breadth twenty-four .... And thus
enclosed, as I said, round with a Palizade of Planckes
and strong Posts, foure foot deep in the ground, of yong
Oakes, Walnuts, etc., the fort is called, in honor of his
Majesty's name, Jamestown. The principal gate from the
town, through the palisade, opens to the river, as at
each bulwark there is a gate likewise to go forth and at
every gate a demiculverin, and so in the market place.
The houses first raised were all burnt by a casulty of
fire the beginning of the second year of their seat and
in the second voyage of Captain Newport, which since have
been better rebuilded, though as yet in no great
uniformity, either for the fashion or beauty of the
street. A delicate wrought fine kind of mat the Indians
make, with which (as they can be trucked for snatched up)
our people do dress their chambers and inward rooms,
which make their houses so much the more handsome. The
houses have wide and large country chimneys, in which is
supposed (in such plenty of wood) what fires are
maintained; and they have found the way to cover their
houses now (as the Indians) with barks of trees, as
durable and as good proof against storms and winter
weather as the best tile, defending likewise the piercing
sunbeams of summer and keeping the inner lodgings cool
enough, which before in sultry weather would be like
stoves, whilst they were, as at first, pargeted and
plastered with bitumen or tough clay."
Strachey (Wright 1964:79-81)
English launch major attack on the Paspahegh village,
capturing and executing the Queen and her children,
burning houses and cutting down corn fields. Subsequent
use of word Paspahegh in documents refers to their former
De La Warr leaves for England, George Percy is Deputy
Governor until arrival of Thomas Dale, about 150 people
Dale arrives off Point Comfort.
Sir Thomas Gates, Lt. Governor returns to Virginia with
280 people and assumes control.
"Sir Thomas Gates ... happily arrived about the
second of August, with sixe good Shippes, men, provisions
and cattle ... the resolution of Sir Thomas Dale, now
wholy busied (our land fortifications to weake to
withstand a forraigne Enemy). . . ."
Dale with 350 men start building Henricus.
William Strachey leaves Virginia for England.
Also in 1611
John Rolfe imports tobacco seeds from Trinidad, Nicotiana
; native tobacco was Nicotiana rustica
John Rolfe exports first crop of improved
"...and the forts which they have are of boards
and so weak that a kick would break them down, and once
arrived at the ramparts those without would have the
advantage over those within because its beams and
loopholes are common to both parts - a fortifcation
without skill and made by unskilled men. Nor are they
efficient soldiers, although the rulers and captains make
a great profession of this because of the time they have
served in Flanders on the side of Holland, where some
have companies and castles. The men are poorly drilled
and not prepared for military action."
Molina (Tyler 1952:221).
"Twenty leagues off is this colony with one
hundred and fifty persons and six pieces; . . ."
Diego de Molina (Tyler 1952:224).
Pocahontas captured and brought to Jamestown.
John Rolfe makes first shipment of West Indian tobacco
grown in Virginia to England.
"The Towne [James Town] it selfe by the care and
providence of Sir Thomas Gates, who for the most part had
his chiefest residence there, is reduced into a handsome
forme, and hath in it two faire rowes of houses, all of
framed Timber, two stories, and an upper Garret, or Corne
loft high, besides the three large, and substantial
Storehouses, joyned together in a length some hundred and
twenty foot, and in breadth forty, and this town hath
been lately newly, and strongly impaled, and a faire
platforme fro Ordence in the west Bulwarke raised: there
are also wothout this towne in the Island, some very
pleasant, and beautifull houses, tow Blockhouses, to
observe and watch least the Indians at any time should
swim over the back river, and come into the Island, and
certain other farme houses."
"No sooner was he thus fenced, and in a manner
secured from the Indians, but his next worke (without
respect to his owne health or particular welfare) was
building at each corner of the towne, very strong and
high commanders or watch-towers, a faire and handsome
Church, and storehouses, ... There is in this town 3
streets of well framed houses, a hansom Church, and the
foundations of a more stately one laid, of Brick, in
length, an hundred foote, and fifty foot wide, beside
Store houses, watch houses, and such like: there are
also, as ornaments belonging to this Town, upon the verge
of this River, five faire Block houses, or commanders,
wherein live the honesteo sort of people, as in Farmes in
England. ... by name, Hope in faith, Coxen Dale, secured
by five Forts, called, Charity Fort, Mount malado, a
retreat, or guest house for sick people, a high seat, and
wholesome aire, Elizabeth Fort, and Fort patience: and
heere hath Mr. Whitacres chosen his Parsonage, or Church
land ... called Rocke Hall ... "
Hamor (1957: 29-31).
Gates leaves Virginia, leaving Dale as Deputy
John Rolfe and Pocahontas married at Jamestown.
Argall and Ralph Hamor depart from Virignia for
Pocahontas gives birth to son Thomas Rolfe.
John Rolfe lists settlements at Henrico with 38 men
under Capt. Smalley, Bermuda Nether Hundred with 119
under Capt. Yeardley, West and Sherley Hundred with 25
under Capt. Maddeson, James Towne with 50 under Lt.
Sharpe, Kequoughtan with 20 under Capt. George Webb, and
Dales Gifte with 17 under Lt. Cradock.
John Rolfe, Pocahontas, and son depart Virginia for
Thomas Dale arrives in London, leaving Virginia in the hands
of Capt. George Yeardley.
This list is not intended to be complete but to give an overview of the common references associated with James Fort.