1996 Interim Field Report
Removal of the 8" to 1'2" of plowzone in the yard south of the church during the course of three digging seasons (1994-1996) uncovered a number of soil disturbances in the subsoil that prove beyond a reasonable doubt to be the remnants of James Fort, first constructed in 1607. These early 17th-century features include the footprints of the defense work, with sections of two fort walls (curtains) and part of a projecting corner defense (a bulwark or bastion),
one of the fort's interior timber buildings, three backfilled pits, a series of ditches and postholes, and a grave. The plowed soil and the fill in these features held over 160,000 artifacts most dating to the first quarter of the 1600's. A surprising number of these objects were manufactured in the 16th century including arms, armor, pottery, coins, and political tokens. Evidence of the very considerable manufacture of copper jewelry for trade with the Powhatans and of glassmaking was also found.
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